The law of 2 March 1844 is still the basis of the organization of hunting as a whole. The game is then considered as an object of gathering and no one at the time thought about managing its numbers or protecting the biotopes. This legislation has largely continued since then, supplemented by various provisions adopted during the 20th century. This law defined, among other things, the legal hunting periods (according to the reproduction of the animals), the hunting license and allowed only hunting with firearms and hunting in the wild2.
The creation of specialized institutions (Higher Hunting Council, Hunters’ Federation) took place in 1941. In 1956, the former Forestry and Forest Administration instituted a contractual shooting plan in certain départements through the tender specifications hunting in state forest. At the same time, the National Association of Big Game Hunters, chaired at the time by François Sommer, launched a campaign to reflect on the principles of the use of wildlife, culminating in 1963 with the Hunting Plan Act 63-754 of 30 July 1963).
Optional initially, it took fifteen years to reach its cruising speed before being made compulsory under Article 17 of Law 78-1240 of December 29, 1978 for the exercise of hunting of deer, deer and sheep. It will be necessary to wait for a decree of July 31, 1989 so that the plan of hunting is extended to the chamois and the isard.
The structure of territories is profiled through Law 64-696 of 10 July 1964, known as “Loi Verdeille”, on the creation of approved communal and intermunicipal hunting associations. The introduction of an administrative system for compensation for damage to large game originated in 1969. The obligation to satisfy a preliminary examination for the issue of the hunting license took place in 1975. These developments in national law were accompanied design and implementation of international and community law relating to the conservation of wildlife (and particularly migratory birds).
During the 2012/2013 season, 18 people died by firearms during hunting activities. According to this very serious count 5, 15 of these victims were hunters or were directly involved in hunting activities, and 3 were completely foreign to this activity.
The ONCFS recorded 143 accidents including 16 fatalities in 2011/2012, 131 of which 18 fatalities in 2010/2011, 174 of which 19 fatalities in 2009/20106.
Safety rules must be respected at home, in the vehicle and in the field.
Each weapon must be regularly serviced for hunter safety.
At home the weapons must be out of reach of the children but also locked up and if possible disassembled. In a vehicle any weapon must be disassembled, in a sheath and unloaded
On the ground the guns must be directed towards the ground or towards the sky and in no case towards a man or a dog. The hunter must check his guns before any manipulation. He must also hold his gun open and unloaded in the presence of another person.
When the hunter has to cross an obstacle he must always unload and open his weapon. Obviously, he must never shoot at a dwelling or hedge.
In battle, the hunter must wear a fluorescent vest or cap in order to be seen by other hunters and it must be all the more prudent that he shoots (not lead). He must spot his neighbors stationed, only loading his weapon after the start signal which consists of a long shot of hunting horn. He must not leave his post or shoot in the direction of the stalk.
He must make his shot within the limit of an angle of 30 degrees: to visualize this angle the hunter must first place two markers placed ten meters from each other (five meters to his left and five to his right ) on an imaginary line three meters ahead of him. The shot must also be fastened (ie directed in such a way that the ball sinks into the ground) and must only be carried out after the hunted species has been recognized.
It is only at the end of the beat that the hunter can leave his post and he must unload his weapon.